[INDEX] Cooking methods

INDEX:

Cooking for concentration.

Fast cooking

• Broil oven-Rotir
• The plancha-Grillas Grill
• Broiling - grilling
• Bake
• Gratin
• Skip-Sauter-FRY
• FRY-frire
• Steam
• Vacuum
• Poeler
• Boil; on the basis of water boiling

Cooking for expansion

Slow cooking

• Boil; starting with cold water
• Scald-Pochear

Mixed cooking

• Kiln-cooking
• Braising

cooking fire


Cooking by concentration

These types of cooking are intended to retain all of the juices and flavor in foods. Sudden exposure to the heat of the same causes coagulation of proteins and the caramelization of sugars.

Roast - Rotir

Subjecting food to the direct action of the heat in a dry environment, either in oven or the spit (barbecue), We can serve with cooking juices leaked. A more or less golden crust is formed, crispy and tasty.
Parts are exposed to high temperatures in pre-calentados ovens.
Coagulation in the surface, prevents the juices from leaking.
We can cook game meats, Red meat (the more tender cuts are recommended), big fish and tender.

Tips for best results

• Start the maximum cooking and reduce the heat to the food reaches its point.
• The size of the plates we use will be directly proportional to the size of the pieces to Cook, If the former are too big, the caramelization is burned and wasted funds of cooking.
• To give back the meat not prick. We can determine doneness touch, or for more accuracy using a thermometer.

Cooking points

• Blue: 40 to 45 ° C - Tender meat
• Saignat 50 to 55 ° C - Very elastic meat
• A point 60 to 65 ° C - Little elastic meat
• Well tax ID number 70 to 80 ° C - Firm meat

Let meat stand a couple of minutes when out of the heat source, It promotes the tenderness of muscle fibers and the uniformity of color, due to the redistribution of the juices that are concentrated in the interior.

Broil the griddle or Grill - grilling

Expose to the direct action of the radiant of the coals or heat a food by contact of a corrugated iron. It allows rapid coagulation of the surface proteins. It also gives a prized taste. Suitable for good quality meats, Bird tender and fatty fish.
For grilled food must have their faces marked with a crew, It can be done on: charcoal or gas Grill, corrugated or iron skillet ironing, in the latter the drawback is the accumulation of fat during cooking.
The face of food presented to the diner is that is first grilló.

Bake

Cook in preheated oven, products such as: puff pastries, mass choux, cakes, puddings, breads and all products of confectionery and bakery. In this process, you can not form a crust around food. Here we'll add to the bath Marias and the Papillote.

Gratin

On the grill, the heat is transmitted by irradiation of a hot metal to direct fire and acts directly on the surface of the fuel to make crispy.
Preparations or foods that are gratinan are quick cooking, pre-cooked or fully cooked and covered by cheese, sauces or butter and bread crumbs, It forms a protective layer over the food and keeps it dry.

cooking pan

Three types of Gratin differ

• Browning full: cooking in the food process, This must be very juicy so cooked instead of dry, example: goujonettes of chicken or seafood.
• Browning light: It consists in providing a surface crust to food (It must be precooked).
• Gratin to glaze or polishing: It is an operation in which the food is exposed to heat shortly, to add shine to the surface.

*Gratin preparations are usually served in the same container

*It was formerly called Gratin the Golden part which was attached to the plates after having cooked some exquisite preparation and is taking off by scraping

Sauté-Sauter

It involves cooking food over high heat, usually uncovered, with a small amount of fat.
Mainly applied to raw meats in general, legumes, giblets, offal, sausages, fish, seafood, frogs, vegetables and fruits in small cuts. The pores of the raw, to make contact with the warmth of the medium fat, contract and hermetically close instantly, keeping within its juices.

FRY - Frire

Cook food by immersion in a medium fat heated to a high temperature. This sudden immersion of a food in a bath of oil at high temperature - between 160 and 180 ° C- It brings as a consequence the immediate clotting of the surface proteins. The water contained in the food is transformed into steam and will be cooking them in the leaking. To prevent fat from penetrating too edible, some products are "wrap".

**Preparing food for frying

Breading - Viennese or milanesa-

Pass food for wheat flour, then whole egg beaten lightly, and finally in breadcrumbs and eventually with grated Parmesan or seeds.

Overflow

Is covered with a paste food frying with wheat flour, egg, water, milk, beer or wine, for example: beignets.

Crisp
Similar to the Breading, only that the bread that is used is white crumb.

Roman
Pass food first in flour then egg and FRY.

To take into account

• Do not excessively heat the oils - not more than 190 C-. Happen, Glycerol is converted to Acrolein - toxic substance- and from this decomposition, oil begins to stink and smoke.
• If the oil temperature is not high enough, the food is impregnated with fat.
• No salt on the bath of frying foods.

Temperature of oils according to preparations.

• 150 to 160 ° C: Slow cooking, pronunciation dehydration - blanched potatoes-
• 170 ° C: "Wrapped" cooking, immediate staining and crusting over.
• 180 ° C: Small or medium-sized food and second cooking.

Steam

Expose food to water vapor, where the heat allows the cooking. It is the ideal from the dietary point of view. Food well cooked retain the most minerals and vitamins. We also see less weight loss, best conservation taste/colour and a firmer texture.

Vacuum

Place a food in a heat-resistant container, extracting air and sealing it tightly. The cooking is done in wet environments at a lower temperature to 100 ° C.
Cooking is necessarily followed by a Quick cooling - temperatura-celula blast of chill -.
It preserves the nutritional qualities, hygienic and organoleptic. Less weight loss. It extends the life of food. Makes more agile la mise in place and service.

Poeler

The objective is the filing of food dehydration avoiding exposing it directly to the heat dry. The cooking Bowl cover allowing you to maintain a certain percentage of humidity coming from the aromatic garnish vegetables water, It can consist in a mirepoix.
The pieces to cook Brown in the beginning of cooking with the help of a fat. We thus obtain, the coagulation of the proteins on the surface, then there is an exchange between the meat and the aromatic lining resulting in much more fragrant meat.
Poêle meat cooking time is higher in a 20 % to the of the rotir.

Boil - from water boiling-

When submerged a food in a liquid to boil with salt, cause immediate clotting of proteins on the surface. So prevented, in part, the exchange between the liquid and food cooking.
Prolonged cooking meat in a boiling liquid has resulted in the softening of the muscle fibers.
Liquids can be: Water, broth, syrups or milk and can cook: vegetables, pasta, giblets, meats, fish or egg.
If we use this method for cooking legumes or cereal It is advisable not to place salt to the cooking water.


Cooking by expansion

To be introduced in a liquid salt-free products, juices go into the liquid and the taste of the aromatic elements passes into the food.

Boil - water from cold-
When submerged in a cold liquid food, before bring it to a boil, cause an exchange between the cooking liquid and food cooking.
Use this method in vegetables and dry cereal, Potatos, birds, meats, fish, giblets, funds and fumets.
Whiten some foods through this method, We can serve to eliminate excess fat from giblets, having to complete cooking with this or another method.

steam cooking

Blanch-Pocher - Boil raw materials without boiling them-

The raw materials to scald, they never come to a boil, but nearing mijoter - is to maintain the temperature of the water to 80 ° C- using this method for cooking food with high protein content: hams, sausages, eggs, fish and seafood; It shall be kept in compact form, United and juicy. If the water is too cold the proteins are dissolved, the product is watery and tasteless, otherwise, If left boiling water, proteins distend, they are separated and the product melts.
Is added to the water to scald usually vinegar, It will help hold proteins together and give flavor to the edible. We can also add spices, no salt, If necessary, do it at the end of the cooking. For certain raw materials we will use very little amount of liquid - fish or seafood-

Used sub-metodos

• Pocher to bath with movement: the preparation will be in a bowl. Within another container that will contain water, on stove. Beat or move the preparation constantly, to ensure an even temperature transmission. Water can or do not boil. Chilblains are among the preparations that we can perform, hollandaise sauce, Worcestershire sauce or Swiss meringue.
• Pocher a Bain-Marie without movement: in oven at temperature between 140 and 150 ° C, so the preparation has a temperature of 80 ° C. Placed a first mold containing the preparation, inside a second mold with roles in the background - to prevent the mold from moving- with hot water to cover the first mould half. The preparations that we can perform include Flans, terrines, puddings, timpani.


Mixed cooking

Braising-Braiser

Brown whole pieces regarding fat and cook in a container that has a lid. Add a mirepoixe, wine and broth to finish their cooking. Boil over, the Fund is concentrated and returns to penetrate into the food, in the form of vapor and liquid.
Optimum container - which gives its name to the method- is the "braisière": Bowl with lid and two handles, rectangular or oval, with rounded corners of copper and Tin, aluminium or steel.
Formerly, the cover had flanges on which were placed fathoms Al rojo vivo, so food is cooked with embers up and down.



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